Challenge name: Good WAF Description: WAFs cannot detect parameters filled with opaque data such as base64. Consequently, We've tuned our WAF to be more strong checking these inputs. Link:

We were greeted with the following page

written GET news by object (base64(json_object)) parameter.

That was basically the first step for the challenge which was nothing else but a GET parameter object which should have a json_object encoded in base64. Initially I was trying to find the parameter which was in the application and that was, data. So passed base64_encoded({"data":1}) and gave us the first data associated to that. It was a news and basically that showed us it was nothing, but SQLi.

So first attempt was to enumerate and break the query. The base64_encoded({"data":"1"}) and up gave the result of the corresponding number. While I had passed base64_encoded({"data":"'"}), it showed blocked by WAF. Well, that was pretty much sure and the easiest bypass was to include a space in between which was nothing but, base64_encoded({ "data" : "'"}). Bingo, the following page was reflected with that payload

With this, I found the name of the database() (check below for the payload) which was waf_portal and also the table name(check below for payload), access_logscredentialsnews which more of looked like three table names and hence parting them, access_logs, credentials and news (understood this while trying to find the column name :P).

The next step was to find what all are there in the three tables and grab them. Well, poking around for sometime gave me nothing in credentials (basically the flag). I was able to find a user named valid_user with password as 5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99 and role was administrator. Now with this, I had seen a class in the style.css file which was .login-form making me think that there should be a login form. The next step was to identify how to get to the login page and accessed the access_log table to find anything. There were a quite a number of id’s and iterating through each, in the 13th one, I was able to find ?action=log-in.

The next step was to login with the username and password that we had got. The password looked more of like an md5 and googling it cracked it which was password. So now we have the username:valid_user and password:password.

The first way was trying to reach the log-in page. Accessing resulted in an error which was

Notice: Undefined index: credentials in /var/www/html/index.php on line 21

Notice: Undefined index: credentials in /var/www/html/index.php on line 22
Invalid Credentials.

Very well, that error confirmed that we had to pass username and the password as credentials through a GET request. Going ahead, threw another interesting error,

Notice: Uninitialized string offset: 0 in /var/www/html/index.php on line 21

Notice: Uninitialized string offset: 1 in /var/www/html/index.php on line 22
Invalid Credentials

which was nothing but passing it as an array.

The final payload was:[]=valid_user&credentials[]=password&action=log-in

and Bingo, ASIS{e279aaf1780c798e55477a7afc7b2b18}.

Payload for database: base64_encoded({ "data" : " ' UNION SELECT 1,database() -- " })

Payload for table name: base64_encoded({ "data" : "' UNION select 1,table_name from information_schema.tables where table_schema=database() -- " })

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